Exclosures have been erected by many individuals as part of formal studies and as demonstrations. Deer exclosures have been used to demonstrate browsing impacts in the Lake States since at least the 1950's. Long-term maintenance of exclosures is necessary, but difficult to sustain. Exclosures consistently demonstrate the impacts of herbivory on plant composition and growth.
Presented is a 15-year old deer exclosure in Vilas County. Inside the exclosure, regeneration of maple, birch, hemlock and white pine is abundant. Outside, where deer browse, grasses and sedges dominate the understory (photo 2004 by T. Rooney).